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This article published in Wiley's Remediation Journal reviews a site impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFAS). A single application of PlumeStop resulted in a significant reduction of contaminant concentrations to below standards for 18+ months since the injection. Modeling indicates that the PlumeStop application event should keep the PFAS contained within the source area for upwards of 100 years. Details of the remedial design approach are provided along with results of its implementation.

Highlights of the site featured in this research article*:

  • A single-injection of PlumeStop successfully immobilized TPH, PFOS, and PFOA in a source area and a down-gradient plume
  • Eliminated future risk to public health as groundwater contaminants were contained, eliminating route of exposure
  • Modeling indicates that PFOS and PFOA should remain contained within the source zone for decades with a single injection

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About the Author:


Rick McGregor is the President of InSitu Remediation Services Ltd Rick McGregor
President, InSitu Remediation Services Ltd
Rick McGregor is the President of InSitu Remediation Services Ltd and has over 26 years’ experience in groundwater and soil assessment and remediation. Rick has worked in over 30 countries and has authored numerous papers on groundwater assessment and remediation. Rick holds a M.Sc. from the University of Waterloo in hydrogeology and geochemistry and is a Certified Ground Water Professional in Canada and the United States.

* At the time this paper was submitted for publication monitoring data was available only through month 18. The results from the month 18 sampling event indicated the presence of small but detectable amounts of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluoroundecanoic acid. Both detections were well below the US EPA Health Advisory Level. Further groundwater sampling and analyses performed at this site have indicated that all PFAS compounds analyzed for, including these two specific compounds, are below detection level.